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Circular hollow section (CHS) is a high-strength, structural steel section manufactured in various lengths, diameters, and uniform thicknesses in a circular cross-section from different steel metals. This section is also known as hollow round, circular steel, structural tube, or steel tube, and is categorised under hollow structural steel (HSS).
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The production method used in the manufacturing of CHS can be of two types, welded or seamless. A steel strip is transformed into a circular hollow section through a series of production processes, such as forming, welding, and sizing. The techniques to produce CHS include electric resistance welding (ERW) and piercing.
In the ERW method, a flat steel strip undergoes a continuous forming process in a tube mill to form a round mother tube using progressive rolling. Upon formation of the round tube, the steel strip edges are subjected to heat treatment using high-frequency induction or contact welding method. The edges of the strip are then forged together using weld rolls to create a continuous weld along the entire length of the tube without using a filler metal. The formed welded seam is then allowed to cool, before being subjected to shaping and sizing with rollers. This process produces a cold-rolled CHS of required dimensions.
The skew roll piercing process was developed in 1886 by the Mannesmann brothers, which created a revolution in the history of manufacturing seamless hollow sections. The piercing process has two methods, mandrel mill and plug mill, which produce seamless CHS. In the mandrel mill method, a solid steel round billet is heated and pierced through its centre with a metal piercer, forming a hollow shell. It is then rolled in the mandrel mill to reduce its size. Once cooled, the hollow shell is subjected to reheating and sizing using a stretch reducer. In the plug mill method, the processes of piercing and reduction happen simultaneously. The hollow form is then cut into the required length and subjected to the straightening process.
The aforementioned manufacturing methods produce different types of CHSs such as hot-rolled seamless CHS, hot-rolled welded CHS, cold-formed seamless CHS, and cold-formed welded CHS.
CHS is manufactured using steel grade S275J2H, S235JR, and S355J2H.
All industries and sectors use CHSs in some form. CHS with a uniform thickness across its length has good structural efficiency, torsion, ductility, strength, and is easy to weld, cut, bend, and form. Specific uses of CHSs are summarized below:
Structural frameworks, railings, connecting lengths, columns, concealed ducting, and more
• Gas, petrochemical, oil
CHSs are effectively used to lay out pipelines carrying material through their internal hollow sections. The walls of the hollow circular section form an effective barrier in the most corrosive environment.
• Automotive and transport
Almost all vehicles have the CHS integrated into their bodies in the form of some component.
• Mining and marine
The mining and marine sector works under harsh conditions. The framework of structures for these sectors uses a lot of CHSs due to their excellent torsion and axial properties.
• Manufacturing units
Various equipment manufacturers use the CHS to fabricate parts and components essential for different machines, heavy-duty vehicles, and plants.
CHS has a very appealing surface look and hence is also used extensively in various architectural projects.
SteelScout has a wide range of CHSs in every possible size, length, and thickness to suit the various requirements of its customers. We supply CE-certified CHS in all types and finishes. To further save you time when fabricating, we provide value-added services such as cutting, notching, profiling, and finishing. Any additional services required for surface treatments, such as galvanising, shot-blasting and priming, 4-coat painting, and powder-coating are provided.
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